Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 1 – BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial statements and do not include all the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for complete financial statements. The information furnished reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring items which are, in the opinion of management, necessary in order to make the financial statements not misleading. The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017 have been audited by an independent registered public accounting firm. The accounting policies and procedures employed in the preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements have been derived from the audited financial statements of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2017, which are contained in Form 10-K as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 2, 2018. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2017 was derived from those financial statements.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and the rules and regulations of the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission for Interim Financial Information. The condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company include the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. All adjustments (consisting of normal recurring items) necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2018, and the results of operations and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2018 have been included. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.
Description of Business
Orbital Tracking Corp. (the “Company”) was formerly Great West Resources, Inc., a Nevada corporation. The Company, through its wholly owned subsidiaries, Global Telesat Communications Limited (“GTCL”) and Orbital Satcom Corp. (“Orbital Satcom”) is a provider of satellite-based hardware, airtime and related services both in the United States and internationally. The Company’s principal focus is on growing the Company’s existing satellite-based hardware, airtime and related services business line and developing the Company’s own tracking devices for use by retail customers worldwide.
On March 28, 2014, the Company merged with and into a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company (“Great West”) solely for the purpose of changing its state of incorporation to Nevada from Delaware (the “Reincorporation”), effecting a 1:150 reverse split of its common stock, and changing its name to Great West Resources, Inc. in connection with the plans to enter into the business of potash mining and exploration. During late 2014, the Company abandoned its efforts to enter the potash mining and exploration business. All references in the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto have been retroactively restated to reflect the reverse stock split of 1:150.
On the effective date of the Merger:
(a) Each share of the Company’s Common Stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective date changed and converted into 1/150th fully paid and non-assessable shares of Great West Common Stock;
(b) Each share of the Company’s Series A Preferred Stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective date changed and converted into 1/150th fully paid and non-assessable shares of the Great West Series A Preferred Stock;
(c) Each share of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective date changed and converted into 1/150th fully paid and non-assessable shares of the Great West Series B Preferred Stock;
(d) All options to purchase shares of the Company’s Common Stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective date changed and converted into equivalent options to purchase 1/150th of a share of Great West Common Stock at an exercise price of $0.0001 per share;
(e) All warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s Common Stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective date changed and converted into equivalent warrants to purchase 1/150th of a share of Great West Common Stock at 150 times the exercise price of such converted warrants; and
(f) Each share of Great West Common Stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Date were canceled and returned to the status of authorized but unissued Great West Common Stock.
Global Telesat Communications Limited (“GTCL”) was formed under the laws of England and Wales in 2008. On February 19, 2015, the Company entered into a share exchange agreement with GTCL and all of the holders of the outstanding equity of GTCL pursuant to which GTCL became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.
For accounting purposes, this transaction was accounted for as a reverse acquisition and has been treated as a recapitalization of the Company with GTCL considered the accounting acquirer, and the financial statements of the accounting acquirer became the financial statements of the registrant. The completion of the Share Exchange resulted in a change of control. The Share Exchange was accounted for as a reverse acquisition and re-capitalization. The GTCL shareholders obtained approximately 39% of voting control on the date of Share Exchange. GTCL was the acquirer for financial reporting purposes and the Company was the acquired company. The consolidated financial statements after the acquisition include the balance sheets of both companies at historical cost, the historical results of GTCL and the results of the Company from the acquisition date. All share and per share information in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and footnotes has been retroactively restated to reflect the recapitalization. See Note 8 - Stockholders Equity.
On March 8, 2018, our then-outstanding 140,224,577 shares of common stock outstanding were reduced by a reversed split for a ratio of 1 for 150. As of March 30, 2018, we have 936,519 shares of common stock issued and outstanding post-split. The number of authorized shares of our common stock will not be reduced by the reverse stock split. Accordingly, the reverse Stock split will have the effect of creating additional unissued and unreserved shares of our common stock. All share and per share, information in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and footnotes has been retroactively restated to reflect the reverse split. See Note 8 - Stockholders Equity.
Use of Estimates
In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the statements of financial condition, and revenues and expenses for the years then ended. Actual results may differ significantly from those estimates. Significant estimates made by management include, but are not limited to, the assumptions used to calculate stock-based compensation, derivative liabilities, preferred deemed dividend and common stock issued for services.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when acquired to be cash equivalents. The Company places its cash with a high credit quality financial institution. The Company’s account at this institution is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to $250,000. To reduce its risk associated with the failure of such financial institution, the Company evaluates at least annually the rating of the financial institution in which it holds deposits.
Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts
The Company has a policy of reserving for questionable accounts based on its best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in its existing accounts receivable. The Company periodically reviews its accounts receivable to determine whether an allowance is necessary based on an analysis of past due accounts and other factors that may indicate that the realization of an account may be in doubt. Account balances deemed to be uncollectible are charged to the bad debt expense after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. As of March 31, 2018, and December 31, 2017, there is an allowance for doubtful accounts of $448 and $431.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value, using the first-in first-out cost method. The Company assesses the valuation of its inventories and reduces the carrying value of those inventories that are obsolete or in excess of the Company’s forecasted usage to their estimated net realizable value. The Company estimates the net realizable value of such inventories based on analysis and assumptions including, but not limited to, historical usage, expected future demand and market requirements. A change to the carrying value of inventories is recorded to cost of goods sold.
In July 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. ASU 2015-11 requires that inventory within the scope of this Update be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The amendments in this Update do not apply to inventory that is measured using last-in, first-out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method. The amendments apply to all other inventory, which includes inventory that is measured using first-in, first-out (FIFO) or average cost. For all entities, the guidance is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2016. This guidance is not expected to have a material impact upon our financial condition or results of operations.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company’s reporting currency is US Dollars. The accounts of one of the Company’s subsidiaries, GTCL, is maintained using the appropriate local currency, (Great British Pound) as the functional currency. All assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. Dollars at balance sheet date, shareholders’ equity is translated at historical rates and revenue and expense accounts are translated at the average exchange rate for the year or the reporting period. The translation adjustments are deferred as a separate component of stockholders’ equity, captioned as accumulated other comprehensive (loss) gain. Transaction gains and losses arising from exchange rate fluctuation on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the statements of operations.
The relevant translation rates are as follows: for the three months ended March 31, 2018 closing rate at 1.4015 US$: GBP, average rate at 1.39059 US$: GBP, for the three months ended March 31, 2017 closing rate at 1.2555 US$: GBP, average rate at 1.23801 US$: GBP, for the year ended 2017 closing rate at 1.350291 US$: GBP, average rate at 1.28819 US$ GBP.
Revenue Recognition and Unearned Revenue
The Company recognizes revenue from satellite services when earned, as services are rendered or delivered to customers. Equipment sales revenue is recognized when the equipment is delivered to and accepted by the customer. Only equipment sales are subject to warranty. Historically, the Company has not incurred significant expenses for warranties.
The Company’s customers generally purchase a combination of our products and services as part of a multiple element arrangement. The Company’s assessment of which revenue recognition guidance is appropriate to account for each element in an arrangement can involve significant judgment. This assessment has a significant impact on the amount and timing of revenue recognition.
Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria have been met:
We recognize revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, “Revenue Recognition,” when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, title and risk of loss have passed, delivery has occurred or the services have been rendered, the sales price is fixed or determinable and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. Title and risk of loss generally pass to our customers upon delivery, as we have insurance for lost shipments. In limited circumstances where either title or risk of loss pass upon destination or acceptance or when collection is not reasonably assured, we defer revenue recognition until such events occur. We derive revenues from two primary sources: products and services. Product revenue includes the shipment of product according to the agreement with our customers. Services include mobile telecommunication services, such as airtime usage, messaging, mapping services and customer support (technical support), installations and consulting. A contract may include both product and services. Rarely, contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations. For these contracts, the Company accounts for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct. The transaction price is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. Standalone selling prices are typically estimated based on observable transactions when these services are sold on a standalone basis.
The Company provides product warranties with varying lengths of time and terms. The product warranties are considered to be assurance-type in nature and do not cover anything beyond ensuring that the product is functioning as intended. Based on the guidance in ASC 606, assurance-type warranties do not represent separate performance obligations. The Company also sells separately-priced maintenance service contracts which qualify as service-type warranties and represent separate performance obligations. The Company has historically experienced a low rate of product returns under the warranty program.
A variety of technical services can be contracted by our customers for a designated period of time. The service contracts allow customers to call the Company for technical support, replace defective parts and to have onsite service provided by the Company’s third-party contract service provider. The Company records revenues for contract services at the amount of the service contract, but such amount is deferred at the beginning of the service term and amortized ratably over the life of the contract.
The Company believes that its products and services can be accounted for separately as its products and services have value to the Company’s customers on a stand-alone basis. When a transaction involves more than one product or service, revenue is allocated to each deliverable based on its relative fair value; otherwise, revenue is recognized as products are delivered or as services are provided over the term of the customer contract.
Deferred revenue is shown separately in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as current liabilities. At March 31, 2018, we had deferred revenue of approximately $54,211. At December 31, 2017, we had deferred revenue of approximately $215,989.
Cost of Product Sales and Services
Cost of sales consists primarily of materials, airtime and overhead costs incurred internally and amounts incurred to contract manufacturers to produce our products, airtime and other implementation costs incurred to install our products and train customer personnel, and customer service and third party original equipment manufacturer costs to provide continuing support to our customers. There are certain costs which are deferred and recorded as prepaids, until such revenue is recognized. Refer to revenue recognition above as to what constitutes deferred revenue.
Shipping and handling costs are included as a component of costs of product sales in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations because the Company includes in revenue the related costs that the Company bills its customers.
Intangible assets include customer contracts purchased and recorded based on the cost to acquire them. These assets are amortized over 10 years. Useful lives of intangible assets are periodically evaluated for reasonableness and the assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may no longer be recoverable.
Goodwill and other intangible assets
In accordance with ASC 350-30-65, “Intangibles - Goodwill and Others”, the Company assesses the impairment of identifiable intangibles whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Factors the Company considers to be important which could trigger an impairment review include the following:
When the Company determines that the carrying value of intangibles may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment and the carrying value of the asset cannot be recovered from projected undiscounted cash flows, the Company records an impairment charge. The Company measures any impairment based on a projected discounted cash flow method using a discount rate determined by management to be commensurate with the risk inherent in the current business model. Significant management judgment is required in determining whether an indicator of impairment exists and in projecting cash flows. The Company did not consider it necessary to record any impairment charges during the three months ended March 31, 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2017, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at historical cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is based on the estimated service lives of the depreciable assets and is calculated using the straight-line method. Expenditures that increase the value or productive capacity of assets are capitalized. Fully depreciated assets are retained in the property and equipment, and accumulated depreciation accounts until they are removed from service. When property and equipment are retired, sold or otherwise disposed of, the asset’s carrying amount and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in operations. Repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred.
The estimated useful lives of property and equipment are generally as follows:
Impairment of long-lived assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value. The Company did not consider it necessary to record any impairment charges during the periods ended March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”, for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. ASC 820 establishes a common definition for fair value to be applied to existing US GAAP that require the use of fair value measurements which establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about such fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Additionally, ASC 820 requires the use of valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. These inputs are prioritized below:
Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data
Level 3: Unobservable inputs for which there is little or no market data, which require the use of the reporting entity’s own assumptions.
The Company did not identify any other assets or liabilities that are required to be presented on the condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value in accordance with the accounting guidance. The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheet for cash, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their estimated fair market value based on the short-term maturity of the instruments.
Stock Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of the Share-Based Payment Topic of ASC 718 which requires recognition in the consolidated financial statements of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee or director is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). The ASC also requires measurement of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award.
Pursuant to ASC Topic 505-50, for share-based payments to consultants and other third-parties, compensation expense is determined at the “measurement date.” The expense is recognized over the vesting period of the award. Until the measurement date is reached, the total amount of compensation expense remains uncertain. The Company initially records compensation expense based on the fair value of the award at the reporting date.
The Company has adopted Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 740-10, Income Taxes (“ASC740-10”) which requires the recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statement or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the difference between financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce the deferred tax assets to an amount that will more likely than not be realized.
The Company follows the provision of ASC 740-10 related to Accounting for Uncertain Income Tax Positions. When tax returns are filed, there may be uncertainty about the merits of positions taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. In accordance with the guidance of ASC 740-10, the benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions. Tax positions that meet the more likely than not recognition threshold are measured at the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefit associated with tax positions taken that exceed the amount measured as described above should be reflected as a liability for uncertain tax benefits in the accompanying balance sheet along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination.
The Company believes its tax positions are all more likely than not to be upheld upon examination. As such, the Company has not recorded a liability for uncertain tax benefits.
The Company has adopted ASC 740-10-25, “Definition of Settlement”, which provides guidance on how an entity should determine whether a tax position is effectively settled for the purpose of recognizing previously unrecognized tax benefits and provides that a tax position can be effectively settled upon the completion and examination by a taxing authority without being legally extinguished. For tax positions considered effectively settled, an entity would recognize the full amount of tax benefit, even if the tax position is not considered more likely than not to be sustained based solely on the basis of its technical merits and the statute of limitations remains open. The federal and state income tax returns of the Company are subject to examination by the IRS and state taxing authorities, generally for three years after they are filed.
Earnings per Common Share
Net income (loss) per common share is calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 260: Earnings per Share (“ASC 260”). Basic income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. The computation of diluted net loss per share does not include dilutive common stock equivalents in the weighted average shares outstanding as they would be anti-dilutive. In periods where the Company has a net loss, all dilutive securities are excluded.
The following are dilutive common stock equivalents during the period ended:
Related Party Transactions
A party is considered to be related to the Company if the party directly or indirectly or through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with the Company. Related parties also include principal owners of the Company, its management, members of the immediate families of principal owners of the Company and its management and other parties with which the Company may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. A party which can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or if it has an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests is also a related party.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year’s financial statements to conform to the current year’s presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported results of operations. The Company reclassified certain expense accounts to conform to the currents year’s treatment.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedient, which is to (1) clarify the objective of the collectability criterion for applying paragraph 606-10-25-7; (2) permit an entity to exclude amounts collected from customers for all sales (and other similar) taxes from the transaction price; (3) specify that the measurement date for noncash consideration is contract inception; (4) provide a practical expedient that permits an entity to reflect the aggregate effect of all modifications that occur before the beginning of the earliest period presented when identifying the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations, determining the transaction price, and allocating the transaction price to the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations; (5) clarify that a completed contract for purposes of transition is a contract for which all (or substantially all) of the revenue was recognized under legacy GAAP before the date of initial application, and (6) clarify that an entity that retrospectively applies the guidance in Topic 606 to each prior reporting period is not required to disclose the effect of the accounting change for the period of adoption. The amendments of this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. There was no impact as a result of adopting this ASU on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, in an effort to reduce the diversity of how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The amendments of this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. There was no impact as a result of adopting this ASU on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. This new standard clarifies the definition of a business and provides a screen to determine when an integrated set of assets and activities is not a business. The screen requires that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. This new standard was effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. There was no impact as a result of adopting this ASU on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This new standard provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. This amendment was effective for the Company on December 15, 2017. There was no impact as a result of adopting this ASU on the financial statements and related disclosures.
On December 22, 2017 the SEC staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (SAB 118), which provides guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the TCJA). SAB 118 provides a measurement period that should not extend beyond one year from the enactment date for companies to complete the accounting under ASC 740. In accordance with SAB 118, a company must reflect the income tax effects of those aspects of the TCJA for which the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. To the extent that a company’s accounting for certain income tax effects of the TCJA is incomplete but for which they are able to determine a reasonable estimate, it must record a provisional amount in the financial statements. Provisional treatment is proper in light of anticipated additional guidance from various taxing authorities, the SEC, the FASB, and even the Joint Committee on Taxation. If a company cannot determine a provisional amount to be included in the financial statements, it should continue to apply ASC 740 on the basis of the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately before the enactment of the TCJA. The Company has applied this guidance to its financial statement
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), under the new guidance, lessor accounting is largely unchanged. Certain targeted improvements were made to align, where necessary, lessor accounting with the lessee accounting model and Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The amendments of this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. There was no impact as a result of adopting this ASU on the financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef